In woodworking, a moulding plane
In woodworking, a moulding plane (molding plane in US spelling) is a specialised plane used for making the complex shapes found in wooden mouldings. 1
Traditionally, moulding planes were blocks of wear resistant hardwood, often beech or maple, which were worked to the shape of the intended moulding. The blade, or iron was likewise formed to the intended moulding profile and secured in the body of the plane with a wooden wedge. A traditional cabinetmakers shop might have many, perhaps hundreds, of moulding planes for the full range of work to be performed. The late nineteenth century brought modern types which were all-metal affairs such as the American Stanley No. 55 Universal Plane2 and the English Record No. 405 Multi-Plane with a wide variety of interchangeable cutters, integral fences, and "nickers", small cutting edges which score the grain fibers when working across the board.3
Large crown mouldings required planes of six or more inches in width, which demanded great strength to push and often had additional peg handles on the sides, allowing the craftsman's apprentice or other worker to pull the plane ahead of the master who guided it.4:132
Stanley No. 55 Universal plane with wide array of interchangeable cutters.
While generally considered outdated, a modern furniture shop doing reproduction or restoration work might keep a collection of moulding planes to match original work, or to build in an authentic manner.
The earliest known record of a moulding plane is a moulding plane iron of Roman origin unearthed in Cologne, Germany.4:116
In modern industry, the work of the moulding plane has been taken up by the electrically powered spindle moulder or wood shaper. On a smaller scale, the hand-held or table-mounted electric router allows the use of interchangeable router bits of a wide variety of profiles and is readily available to the small business or home craftsperson.
Types of molding include:
Powder metallurgy plus sintering
Reaction injection molding
Rotational molding (or Rotomolding)
Vacuum forming, a simplified version of thermoforming
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For other uses, see Mold (cooking implement).
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One half of a bronze mold for casting a socketed spear head dated to the period 1400-1000 BC. There are no known parallels for this mold.
Stone mold of the Bronze Age used to produce spear tips.
Ancient Greek molds, used to mass-produce clay figurines, 5th/4th century BC. Beside them, the modern casts taken from them. On display in the Ancient Agora Museum in Athens, housed in the Stoa of Attalus.
Ancient wooden molds used for jaggery & sweets, archaeological museum in Jaffna, Sri Lanka.
Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.1 This itself may have been made using a pattern or model of the final object.
A mold or mould is a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid or pliable material like plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw materials.2 The liquid hardens or sets inside the mold, adopting its shape. A mold is the counterpart to a cast. The very common bi-valve molding process uses two molds, one for each half of the object. Piece-molding uses a number of different molds, each creating a section of a complicated object. This is generally only used for larger and more valuable objects.
The manufacturer who makes the molds is called the moldmaker. A release agent is typically used to make removal of the hardened/set substance from the mold easier. Typical uses for molded plastics include molded furniture, molded household goods, molded cases, and structural materials.